ACE Inhibitors – Contraindications: [PARK]

Pregnancy
Allergy/Angioedema
Renal artery stenosis/Renal failure
K – hyperkalemia (potassium > 5.5)

ACE inhibitors – Side Effects: [CAPTOPRIL]

Cough
Angioedema
Potassium excess
Taste changes
Orthostatic hypotension
Pregnancy contraindication/Pressure drop (hypotension)
Renal failure/Rash
Indomethacin inhibition
Leukopenia (rare)

ACS – Treatment: [MONA B]

Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrates
Aspirin
Beta-blockers

Acute Limb Ischaemia [5 P’s]

Pain

Pallor

Pulselessness

Paralysis

Paraesthesia

AF – Causes [PIRATES]

Pulmonary embolism, pulmonary disease, post-operative
Ischemic heart disease, idiopathic (“lone atrial fibrillation”)
Rheumatic valvular disease (mitral stenosis or regurgitation)
Anemia, alcohol (“holiday heart”), age, autonomic tone (vagal atrial fibrillation)
Thyroid disease (hyperthyroidism)
Elevated blood pressure (hypertension), electrocution
Sleep apnea, sepsis, surgery

Amiodarone – Side-Effects + Toxicity: [BITCH]

Bradycardia/Blue man
Interstitial Lung Disease
Thyroid (hyper and hypo)
Corneal (occular)/Cutaneous (skin)
Hepatic/Hypotension when IV (due to solvents)

Atrioventricular node (AV node) blocking agents: [ABCD]

Adenosine, amiodarone
Beta-blockers
Calcium channel blockers
Digoxin

Cardioselective beta-blockers: Beta-blockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium [MAABE]

Metoprolol

Acetabutolol

Atenolol

Betaxolol

Esmolol

Cyanotic congenital heart disease (right to left shunts): [5 T’s]

Truncus arteriosus
Transposition of the great arteries
Tricuspid atresia
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

ECG – Causes of ST segment elevation: [ELEVATION]

Electrolyte abnormalities
Left bundle branch block
Aneurysm of left ventricle
Ventricular hypertrophy
Arrhythmia disease (Brugada syndrome, ventricular tachycardia)
Takotsubo/Treatment (iatrogenic pericarditis)
Injury (myocardial infarction or cardiac contusion)
Osborne waves (hypothermia or hypocalcemia)
Non-atherosclerotic (vasospasm or Prinzmetal’s angina)

Hypertension – Secondary causes: [ABCDEF]

Apnea (obstructive sleep apnea), Acromegaly, Accuracy (incorrect measurement)
Birth control, Bad kidney
Coarctation of the aorta, Cushing’s syndrome, Conn’s syndrome, Catecholamines
Drugs (alcohol, nasal decongestants, estrogens)
Endocrine disorders, erythropoietin
Fibromuscular dysplasia

JVP – Elevation Causes: [PQRST]

Pericardial effusion (causing cardiac tamponade and “Kussmal’s sign”)
Quantity – volume overload from congestive heart failure
Right heart failure
Superior vena cava obstruction (SVC syndrome)
Tricuspid regurgitation (V waves)/Tricuspid stenosis

MI – Complications: [DARTH VADER]

Death
Arrhythmia
Rupture (free ventricular wall/ ventricular septum/ papillary muscles)
Tamponade
Heart failure (acute or chronic)
Valve disease
Aneurysm of ventricle
Dressler’s syndrome
thromboEmbolism (mural thrombus)
Recurrence/ mitral Regurgitation

Tamponade – Beck’s triad [3 D’s]

Distant heart sounds
Decreased arterial BP
Distended neck veins

Tetralogy of Fallot: [PROVe]

Pulmonary stenosis
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Overriding aorta
Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular Tachycardia – Treatment: [LAMB S]

Lidocaine
Amiodarone
Mexiletine/Magnesium (for polymorphic VT or Torsades)
Beta-blockers

Shock (DC Cardioversion)